On carrying out the republican information – educational campaign “Belarus against tobacco”
In the Republic of Belarus with 31 May on 21 June 2020 of the year the republican informational and educational action “Belarus against tobacco” is held. According to the World Health Organization (VOZ), tobacco use is one of the most significant threats to human health, killing annually about seven million human lives.
According to the World Health Organization (VOZ) in the 20th century, tobacco became the cause 100 million deaths. Keeping current trends, up to one billion deaths due to tobacco in the 21st century. Tobacco kills up to half of people who use it. Every 6 seconds, about one person dies due to tobacco. Tobacco almost annually leads to 6 millions of deaths, of which more 5 million cases occur among consumers and former tobacco users, and more 600 000 - among non-smokers, exposed to second-hand smoke. Secondary tobacco smoke is smoke., filling restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces, where do people smoke. В табачном дыме присутствует более 4 000 химических веществ, out of which, at least, 250 known as harmful, and more 50 like carcinogens. There is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke.
Secondary smoke causes serious cardiovascular and respiratory diseases among adults, including coronary heart disease and lung cancer. Among infants, it causes sudden death. In pregnant women, it leads to the birth of children with low body weight. Almost half of the children breathe air regularly, contaminated tobacco smoke in public places. More 40% children have, at least, one smoking parent.
Necessary, so that everyone can breathe air, smoke free. Normative legal acts to ensure the environment, smoke free, protect the health of non-smokers, are popular, do not harm business and contribute to, so that smokers quit smoking.
If urgent measures are not taken, annual deaths to 2030 year may exceed eight million. Tobacco users, dying prematurely, deprive their families of income, increase the cost of medical care and hamper economic development.
Reduce cigarette consumption by 1,9% will save more 38000 lives per year.
According to the International Cancer Union (UICC) Today 30% all cancer deaths are related to smoking. Halving tobacco use will save 170 million lives to 2050 year.
Quitting smoking, even at middle and older age, gives a positive result: the risk of tumors is reduced, smoking-related (from 5 to 15%), as well as heart attacks and strokes.
According to the World Health Organization, smoking provokes 90% lung cancer deaths, chronic bronchitis and coronary heart disease. Specialists statistically reliably associate smoking with an increase in disease, disability: coronary heart disease, tuberculosis, emphysema and lung cancer, asthmatic bronchitis, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, diseases of the nervous system, etc.. Doctors have proven, that the average lifespan of a smoker on 9 less years, than a non-smoker. Research, conducted in the USA and Europe, showed, that the risk of lung cancer increases in direct proportion to the number of cigarettes smoked. The close relationship between smoking and cancer is primarily due to chemicals formed during the combustion of tobacco, called carcinogens. In tobacco smoke found above 1,5 dozens. Established, that the danger of getting cancer is significantly (almost in 30 time) higher for hard smokers and early smokers. Cancer mortality also increases alongside cigarette consumption. Risk indicator, smoking related, different for tumors of various locations and depends on age at the time of smoking, smoking duration and number of cigarettes, smoked per day.
Tobacco smoking is an aggressive risk factor for disease:
Cardiovascular diseases. According to the American Cancer Society, the US annually registers 150 thousand. deaths from heart disease, smoking-related, in Germany - 80-90 thousand caused by the same reason. The number of deaths from passive smoking from coronary heart disease (further - ischemic heart disease) in the UK is about 5 thousand. person. In the Republic of Belarus 30-40% all deaths from coronary heart disease associated with tobacco smoking.
Diseases of the nervous system. Many smokers consider, that smoking improves brain function, helps focus, increases attention. Is it so? According to a study by British smoking experts, is known, that nicotine, contained in just one cigarette, enough for, to significantly reduce concentration and slow down the reaction to unexpected changes in the situation. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of acute cerebrovascular accident by three times (cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage), who lead among the causes of disability: 75-80% survivors lose their ability to work. Tobacco smoking and the simultaneous use of combined oral contraceptives significantly increase the likelihood of hemorrhage in the brain in women.
Pulmonary disease. A large number of chemicals enter the bloodstream through the lungs.. Cigarette smoke, coming into direct contact with the lungs, significantly increases the risk of pneumonia, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and other pulmonary diseases.
Stomach diseases. The negative effect of prolonged smoking is the development in humans of various chronic diseases of the stomach, up to the development of peptic ulcer. Besides, smoking slows the healing of ulcers and promotes their reoccurrence.
Smoking and pregnancy. Nicotine adversely affects not only the physical, but also on the mental state of the unborn child. German scientists have proven, what for children, born to smoking mothers, at an early age inattention is characteristic, impulsivity and useless overactivity, their level of mental development is below average. Most often, the so-called syndrome of "Phil's fidgets" develops. – these children, usually, aggressive and prone to cheating. English doctors concluded, what in children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, on 40% increased risk of autism. Women who smoke are more likely to, that pregnancy can end in premature birth, miscarriage or stillbirth. Also, studies do not exclude, what in children, born to mothers, who smoked during and after pregnancy, sudden infant death syndrome is more common.
Smoking and cancer. In a special place among diseases, smoking related, malignant neoplasms are. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (MAIR) list of malignant neoplasms, smoking related, постоянно повышается. WHO experts calculated: in developed countries approximately 30% all human tumors and cancer deaths associated with smoking. The same statistics are observed in the Republic of Belarus..
Lung cancer. Contemporary works, highlighting the relationship of tobacco smoking with the incidence of lung cancer, show with great conviction, what: 1) smokers get lung cancer much more often, than non-smokers; 2) the incidence of lung cancer in smokers is directly related to the degree of smoking, ie. more malicious smokers get sick more often, than few smokers; 3) tobacco smoking primarily has a local effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, mainly, through exposure to tobacco tar, carcinogenicity which is firmly established; 4) smoking has not only local, but also the overall effect on the body, lowering its resistance and predisposing to the development of cancer in general.
Among lung cancer patients, smokers account for more 90%, and among the rest 10% most were passive smokers, ie. since childhood were among smokers. However, it is extremely important that, that smoking cessation reduces the risk of lung cancer: already through 5 years the incidence rate begins to fall, and through 20 years after termination approaches that of non-smokers.
Bladder cancer. The risk of bladder cancer among smokers is higher in 5-6 time. It grows with an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the duration of smoking., as well as those who started smoking at a young age.
Prostate cancer. According to English and Canadian researchers, the risk of prostate cancer increases in proportion to the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes, smoked per day. In men, smoked more 15 packs of cigarettes per year over the past 10 years old, compared to non-smokers, the risk of disseminated prostate cancer is increased.
Kidney cancer. According to American researchers, 17% kidney cancer growth associated with smoking (21% in men and 11% among women). Reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer by 30% going through 10 years after quitting.
The dangerous effects of smoking on development have also been proven. diabetes, atherosclerosis, obliterating endarteritis, infertility in women, impotence in men, autoimmune diseases.
Secondhand smoke and its effects:
Inhaling air with tobacco smoke is called passive smoking.. Tobacco smoke is not only harmful to the smoker, but also for those, who is next to him. Especially for young children in smokers' families. Sleep and appetite disorders, disruption of the stomach and intestines, increased irritability, poor performance and lag in physical development – here is an incomplete list of the effects of secondhand smoke on children.
Smoke, streaming from a lit cigarette, – this is unfiltered smoke. It contains in 50 times more carcinogens, twice as many pitches and nicotine, five times more carbon monoxide and in 50 times more ammonia, than smoke, inhaled through a cigarette. For people, working in a very smoky room, secondhand smoke can reach equivalent 14 smoked cigarettes per day, which brings them closer to a regular smoker.
Passively inhaled tobacco smoke is a strong irritant to the lungs.. Research has shown, what children, raised in families, where parents smoke, show signs of frustration, which are closely related to heart disease in adulthood. In humans, asthmatic, especially in children, secondhand smoke can trigger seizures.
Как бросить курить.
Tobacco use is one of the regulated risk factors for human health.. Generally recognized, что искоренение курения – одна из эффективных мер оздоровления населения.
About 90% adult smokers stop smoking on their own. The reason for this is specific and general health problems., care for the health of the family or the expected child, desire to create a positive example for children, liberation from addiction, social pressure and desire to improve their appearance. About 70% quitters smoking again, usually, within 3 months. but, with every next attempt, the probability of a final cessation of smoking increases. By, who are not able to quit smoking on their own, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment may help. To receive such treatment, you must go to tobacco dependence treatment rooms in health facilities, providing drug treatment to the population.
Every year 31 WHO and its partners around the world celebrate World No Tobacco Day in May. World No Tobacco Day – 2020 in response to systematic, aggressive and persistent efforts of tobacco and nicotine producers to educate a new generation of tobacco consumers will be an anti-marketing campaign, designed to encourage youth to join the fight against the big tobacco business.
For many decades, tobacco companies have been using sophisticated and cynical methods of involving young people in the use of tobacco and nicotine products and spend significant resources on this.. From the internal documentation of such companies, you can find out about, that they are recruiting a new generation of tobacco lovers through a series of comprehensively studied and carefully verified techniques, from product design to marketing campaigns, designed to ensure the influx of new, young consumers replace millions of people, annually dying from tobacco-related diseases.
Global Campaign for World No Tobacco Day 2020. called upon:
demonstrate the inconsistency of existing misconceptions and talk about manipulative techniques, used by manufacturers of tobacco and nicotine products, especially for marketing youth products, including by introducing new and original products to the market, use of aromatic additives and other attractive consumer characteristics;
to give young people knowledge about the intentions and tactics of the tobacco and nicotine industry in involving current and future generations in the use of its products;
empower opinion leaders (in pop culture, social networks, in educational institutions and at home) to protect and defend the rights of young people and give an impetus to real change, involving them in the fight against the large tobacco business.
Manipulation methods for tobacco and nicotine manufacturers:
Using as part of tobacco and nicotine products attractive to youth aromatic additives, eg, cherry-scented, chewing gum and candy floss, divert attention from health risks and serve as an excuse to try such products.
Stylish design and attractive shape, which are easy to carry and can be taken for something else (eg, if the product is in the form of a flash card or candy).
Promotion of allegedly “less harmful” or “Cleaner” alternatives to traditional cigarettes in the absence of objective scientific data in support of such allegations.
Promoting sales of tobacco and nicotine products through celebrity / opinion leaders (eg, in Instagram) and contests, brand sponsored.
Hidden tobacco advertising in movies, TV shows and online streaming.
The world community cannot allow, so that under the pretext of the struggle for freedom of personal choice, the tobacco and nicotine industry mislead, endlessly pursuing profit at the expense of millions of people, who each year pay for it with their lives.
WHO urges prominent opinion leaders (in pop culture, social networks, educational institutions and at home), tell the truth about the manipulations, companies go to recruit a new generation of tobacco users.
The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus traditionally supports the WHO initiative and conducts the Republican anti-tobacco awareness-raising campaign “Belarus Against Tobacco”. This year she goes with 31 May on 21 June 2020.
Within the framework of the action, it is planned to hold press conferences and round tables in the video format, media appearances on tobacco prevention with the participation of representatives of health organizations, educational institutions, of culture, sports and tourism, law enforcement, public organizations; days of open information, counseling the population in healthcare institutions of the republic on the prevention of smoking, quitting smoking via helplines. Information and educational campaigns on healthy lifestyles and prevention of lung diseases are planned., related to smoking in the regions of the republic.
(Based on materials from the websites of the Republican Hygiene Center, Epidemiology and Public Health, State Institution “Belarusian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education” (publication zav. the narcology sector of the State Institution "Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Mental Health", Cand. honey. Ph.D. Maksimchuk and psychiatrist-narcologist of the narcology sector of the State Institution “Republican Scientific Practical Center for Mental Health” I. A. Belaets – no")