01.12.2020

By | 01.12.2020

World AIDS Day

Annually 1 December is World AIDS Day, adopted in 1988 g. This day is not a public holiday., but for everyone, who is actively fighting the deadly syndrome, this is a very important and serious date. It is dedicated not only to preventive measures, but also the memory of victims of a dangerous disease. Worldwide campaign demonstrates international solidarity in the fight against the HIV epidemic.

AIDS is a progressive viral disease, which makes the body vulnerable to serious infections. For the first time a deadly virus has been reported 5 June 1981 years by scientists from America. Despite, what has passed more 30 years old, so far, no one has managed to defeat the disease. Unfortunately, in many countries AIDS is already epidemic and the only way to protect yourself is to carefully implement all prevention measures.

СПИД распространяется с катастрофической прогрессией и на сегодняшний день число заболевших достигло 52 million. people. Immunodeficiency Virus Suffers As Asocial Persons, so those, who became infected due to their own negligence. Most of the sick are the working-age population before 50 years old. The fight against this epidemic is dedicated to World AIDS Day, reminding, that a dangerous disease is always somewhere near.

Initially 1 декабря особое внимание уделялось именно работе с молодежью и подрастающим поколением. But, as the disease spread throughout the world at an astronomical rate, it was decided to bring as much information as possible to representatives of all ages. After all, as numerous studies have shown, not all adults have an accurate understanding of AIDS and measures to prevent it.

AT 1996 year for the fight against AIDS was organized by the United Nations on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS), who has been entrusted with the coordination and planning of this special date. Belarus has been a member of the organization since its foundation. Офис ЮНЭЙДС открыт в Беларуси в 1997 year. UNAIDS Chief Executive Officer - Program Coordinating Board. Our country is a member of the council for the period until 2022 of the year. Beginning with 2018 a special event "Zero Discrimination" is held annually in Minsk, advocating for a human rights-based approach to HIV / AIDS. II Европейские игры в июне 2019 g. were held under the motto of a healthy lifestyle, eliminating discrimination and preventing the spread of HIV / AIDS. The most important achievement of the joint efforts of Belarus and UNAIDS was the provision of treatment to all those in need
HIV-infected, preventive treatment for all infected women and children, providing all newborn babies with substitution feeding. Morbidity among young people of age 15-24 years reduced in 2,2 times compared to 2000 year. AT 2016 году Беларусь стала первой страной в Европейском регионе ВОЗ, подтвердившей исключение случаев передачи ВИЧ от матери к ребёнку.

В День борьбы со СПИДом 1 December, thematic seminars are organized, lectures, all kinds of promotions and exhibitions, whose task is to bring to society all the globality and seriousness of the problem. Организаторами выступают благотворительные фонды, research and scientific centers, social movements. By visiting these events, you can find out the whole truth and myths about the disease, ways of transmission and, most importantly, prevention. Also, the organizers are faced with the task of building loyalty to all AIDS patients., for which the diagnosis should not become a reason to be excluded from society.

Red ribbon has become a symbol of the fight against AIDS, which today can be seen on all information carriers, связанных с болезнью. The attribute of understanding and support for all AIDS patients appeared in 1991 year based on a sketch by American artist Frank Moore. This idea came from a man as a result of observing a neighbor's family., who wore yellow ribbons as a symbol of hope for the return of their soldier daughter from the Persian Gulf. Frank Moore suggested, what is such a ribbon, only red, сможет стать символом борьбы с заболеванием и озвучил свою идею группе «Visual AIDS», composed of professional artists.

The artist's idea was also approved at the 45th Tony Awards, past 2 June 2000 g. red ribbon, outwardly resembling an inverted English letter "V", has become an official symbol of the fight against AIDS. All those present at the event put on this memorable attribute., launching a worldwide action of memory and confrontation. The laconic red ribbon quickly gained its popularity., not only wear it 1 December, but also at all events, where AIDS is relevant.

AT 2020 year, the world's attention is focused on the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the lives and well-being of people. This pandemic has shown us once again, how closely the health issue is linked to other important issues, such as human rights, gender equality and social protection. COVID-19 has clearly demonstrated, that in any pandemic, the safety of everyone depends on the safety of everyone. To achieve success, need to help everyone, who needs her. Eliminating stigma and discrimination, and application of approaches, based on human rights and gender equality, - these are the main conditions for ending the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics in the world.

World AIDS Day remains relevant today, recalling that, that raising HIV awareness remains critical.

Motto 2020 of the Year - International Solidarity, shared responsibility ", which is confirmed by the participation in the preventive work of state, public and international organizations. The main goal of the activities is to acquire reliable knowledge on all aspects of HIV infection and increase the level of tolerant attitude towards people., living with HIV.

According to statistics from the World Health Organization, there are more than 38 million HIV positive people. В Республике Беларусь с диагнозом «ВИЧ-инфекция» проживают около 23 тысяч человек. More than 2 thousand new cases of HIV infection. В стране в последнее годы наибольшее количество новых случаев регистрируется в возрасте от 30 to 49 years old. Heterosexual transmission of HIV prevails, which is over 80%.

A system has been created in the Republic of Belarus, ensuring maximum accessibility to counseling and testing
for HIV infection. Take voluntary testing
for HIV infection, including anonymous, possible in any medical institution, having a treatment room. Also in the country, on the basis of public non-profit organizations, there are anonymous consulting centers., предоставляющих услуги по консультированию и тестированию на ВИЧ-инфекцию для ключевых групп населения (of people, affected by drug addiction; youth, practicing risky sexual behavior; workers, sex workers for a fee; men, practicing sex with men).

All HIV-positive patients in the Republic of Belarus, состоящие на диспансерном наблюдении, получают лекарственные средства для антиретровирусной терапии бесплатно. Starting treatment on time and following all the doctor's recommendations, people, living with HIV, can live long and fulfilling lives. Качество жизни ВИЧ-позитивных людей благодаря этим лекарственным препаратам почти ничем не отличается от качества жизни людей без ВИЧ.

The efforts of the medical community, education system, of culture, средств массовой информации направлены на просвещение населения по вопросам профилактики ВИЧ-инфекции, with an emphasis on maintaining the social value of the family and the birth of a healthy generation, respect for human rights, avoiding stigma and discrimination against people, living with HIV.

For the World HIV / AIDS Campaign in November
2020 year in Minsk in the cinema "Dom Kino" a republican exhibition of prize-winners of graphic works on the topic "Formation of a tolerant attitude towards people, living with HIV. Overcoming stigma and non-discrimination ". Only in a tolerant and enlightened society can mechanisms for controlling the spread of
ВИЧ-инфекции. Устранение стигмы и недопущение дискриминации в отношении людей, living with HIV, позволяет создать условия для своевременного обращения за помощью и лечением, to change behavior; reduce unfounded fears and normalize relationships between people; break down the psychological barrier, discouraging HIV testing.

WITH 20 November to 24 December 2020 g. the republican preventive action “With an eye to health: 90-90-90. Be in the subject. Take the test. Protect yourself from #HIV ".

В ходе акции все желающие могут добровольно пройти экспресс-тестирование на ВИЧ по слюне, получить консультацию врача-эпидемиолога и психолога по вопросам, касающимся ВИЧ-инфекции, а также информационно-просветительские материалы, personal protective equipment (condoms).

What you need to know about HIV infection?

HIV infection. Risk factors, prevention

HIV infection is a slowly progressive infectious disease, arising from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), damaging the immune system, as a result of which the body becomes highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors, which ultimately lead to the death of the patient. СПИД (синдром приобретенного иммунодефицита человека) – конечная стадия развития ВИЧ-инфекции.

Source of infection. Transmission routes.

Источником заражения является ВИЧ-инфицированный человек на всех стадиях заболевания.

Exists 3 HIV transmission routes:

– contact (sexual);

– parenteral (through blood, syringes, needles, cutting tools, etc., загрязненные кровью, содержащую ВИЧ);

вертикальный (от матери к плоду).

  1. Передача ВИЧ при половых контактах.

При всех видах половых отношений существует риск передачи ВИЧ. Каждый половой контакт без предохранения (без презерватива) с ВИЧ-инфицированным подвергает риску заражения полового партнера. Риск инфицирования половым путем возрастает, если половой партнер является инъекционным наркоманом, имеет множество половых партнеров, практикует гомо- или бисексуальные отношения. Обычно женщины более уязвимы для ВИЧ-инфекции. Transmission of the virus from a man to a woman is about twice as likely, чем от женщины мужчине. В плане заражения ВИЧ-инфицированные люди более опасны для окружающих на самых ранних этапах – до появления в крови антител, ie. during the "seroconversion window", and in the later stages of the disease, when there are clinical manifestations of AIDS. В эти периоды содержание вируса в крови и других биологических средах намного выше, чем в другое время. Наличие инфекций, sexually transmitted, increases the risk of infection in 6-9 time. Попадание возбудителей ИППП вызывает воспалительный процесс; кроме этого, многие ИППП (сифилис, герпес и др.) вызывают изъязвления в области половых органов, что значительно облегчает проникновение вируса.

  1. Передача ВИЧ через кровь.

Кровь инфицированного человека содержит большое количество вируса и является чрезвычайно заразной при попадании ее непосредственно в кровоток другого человека. Существует риск заражения при переливании зараженной донорской крови. This route is significant among injecting drug users.. В результате использование общей иглы и шприцев потребителями инъекционных наркотиков стало главной причиной распространения ВИЧ-инфекции во многих странах. Существует небольшой риск проникновения вируса через незаметные микротравмы и трещины при длительном контакте крови с кожей. There is also a danger of virus penetration through the mucous membranes., eg, if blood gets into the eyes or mouth. Intact skin is a good barrier to the virus. Также возможно заражение через загрязненные кровью бритвенное лезвие, manicure supplies, инструменты для татуажа.

  1. Передача от матери ребенку (вертикальный путь).

Существует три периода, во время которых инфицированная мать может передать вирус своему ребенку:

  • during pregnancy (before birth);
  • during childbirth;
  • after birth, when breastfeeding.

Инфицирование плода происходит в случае, if mother is infected.

Risk factors: наркомания, asocial lifestyle, blood transfusion, being born to an HIV-infected mother, diseases with venereal diseases.

The structure of HIV-infected is dominated by persons aged 20-29 years old, and the proportion of males is about 70 %.

How HIV is not transmitted

The emergence of HIV infection, отсутствие каких-либо действенных препаратов для ее лечения вызвали огромное количество слухов и домыслов о путях передачи ВИЧ. However, as a result of many years of observation of numerous household contacts
HIV-infected was found, that HIV is not transmitted:

with friendly hugs and kisses;

through handshakes;

when using cutlery, bedding;

through items of industrial and home furnishings;

through plumbing items, when using the pool, shower;

in public transport;

insects, including bloodsucking;

by airborne droplets.

Свойства ВИЧ

Вирус иммунодефицита человека – это неустойчивый вирус:

  • dies under the direct influence of alcohol, acetone, ether;
  • на поверхности неповрежденной кожи вирус разрушается под влиянием защитных ферментов организма и бактерий;
  • dies when heated above 57 ° С during 30 minutes;
  • dies when boiled for 1 minutes.

Вирус постоянно изменяется, попадая от одного человека к другому, изменяется даже в процессе лечения. Поэтому сложно создать вакцину и лекарства против ВИЧ.

Развитие ВИЧ-инфекции

Первичная реакция организма на внедрение ВИЧ проявляется выработкой антител. От момента заражения до выработки антител обычно проходит в среднем от 3 weeks before 3 months. It is not uncommon for antibodies to appear only after 6 months. This period is called the "seroconversion window" period..

The next period of HIV development is called asymptomatic or latent. Its duration may be different.: from several months to several years (5-15 years old). It is characterized by the absence of manifestations of the disease.. After an asymptomatic period, an infectious process may develop in the body.. Among the first signs of disease progression is an enlarged lymph node. (lymphadenopathy).

Когда ВИЧ переходит в стадию СПИД, a person may have these symptoms:

weight loss;

malaise, fatigue, drowsiness;

потеря аппетита;

unmotivated diarrhea (diarrhea);

temperature increase;

headache;

swollen lymph nodes.

AIDS is characterized by the development of opportunistic (accompanying) инфекций и опухолей. Инфекции тяжело поддаются лечению.

На ВИЧ можно влиять при помощи антиретровирусных (ARV) drugs, которые замедляют прогрессирование ВИЧ-инфекции вплоть до предупреждения развития СПИДа. The result of antiretroviral therapy is a significant lengthening of life expectancy and an improvement in its quality..

Diagnosis of HIV infection

Определить наличие ВИЧ в организме и поставить диагноз только по внешним признакам нельзя. Blood test required. При этом устанавливают факт наличия в крови антител к ВИЧ (HIV test) and the amount of the virus itself (viral load).

Иммуноферментный анализ (ELISA) проводят для выявления в сыворотке крови антител к ВИЧ.

Polymerase chain reaction method (PCR) используют для определения вирусной нагрузки. This is a very effective and sensitive response., allowing to determine the presence of the virus regardless of the presence of antibodies.

Besides, в настоящее время используются экспресс-тесты на ВИЧ, which allow you to get the result through 15-30 minutes.

Тестирование на ВИЧ можно пройти во всех организациях здравоохранения республики. Before the examination, pre-test counseling is carried out, в ходе которого информируют о дальнейших действиях в зависимости от результата. После получения результата тестирования проводится посттестовое консультирование. В случае положительного результата это, first of all, providing information about the disease and emotional support of a person. Если результат отрицательный – с человеком обсуждаются вопросы, associated with the prevention of the risk of HIV infection in the future.

Профилактика ВИЧ-инфекции

In the Republic of Belarus in accordance with the subprogram 5 "Prevention of HIV infection" of the state program "People's health and demographic security" 2016-2020 years, an Information Strategy on HIV Infection was developed. The new edition of the information strategy on HIV infection in Belarus is designed for 2019-2023 the years. State and international organizations participated in its development.

Основные направления профилактики ВИЧ-инфекции:

safe sexual behavior, condom use; treatment of other diseases, sexually transmitted;

formation in persons, injecting drug users, safer behavior skills, providing them with means of protection (sterile syringes, condoms);

абсолютно надежным средством защиты от ВИЧ-инфекции является полный отказ от употребления наркотиков;

ensuring aseptic conditions in medical practice;

organization of medical care and social support for HIV-infected patients, their families and others.

Здоровый образ жизни тесно связан с информированностью человека о закономерностях развития организма, knowledge of, what is useful for him, and what can harm.

Здоровый образ жизни, забота о своем здоровье и здоровье своих близких – основа профилактики ВИЧ-инфекции.

(Based on materials from the websites of the Republican Hygiene Center, Epidemiology and Public Health https://rcheph.by/news/vsemirnyy-den-borby-so-spidom.html, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus https://mfa.gov.by/mulateral/organization/list/c886c0574dfe12f3.html;

Institute of Parliamentarism and Entrepreneurship https://ipp.by/ideologicheskaya-rabota/profilakticheskaya-rabota/profilaktika-vich-infektsii; ME "City infectious diseases hospital" https://gkib.by/obrashcheniya/571-konsultativnaya-pomoshch-po-voprosam-vich-spid-telefony-goryachikh-linij-dlya-molodezhi)

HIV / AIDS Counseling

ТЕЛЕФОНЫ «ГОРЯЧИХ ЛИНИЙ» ДЛЯ МОЛОДЕЖИ

В ОТДЕЛАХ ПРОФИЛАКТИКИ ВИЧ/СПИД ОБЛАСТНЫХ ЦЕНТРОВ ГИГИЕНЫ, ЭПИДЕМИОЛОГИИ И ОБЩЕСТВЕННОГО ЗДОРОВЬЯ

g. Минск – тел. (8 017) 227 48 25

g. Vitebsk - tel. (8 0212) 223 80 82

g. Gomel - tel. (8 0232) 74 71 40

g. Mogilev - tel. (8 0222) 24 27 06, 27 08 26

CONSULTATIVE ASSISTANCE ON HIV / AIDS, DRUG ADDICTION, INFECTIONS, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED:

Minsk City Narcological Dispensary: st. Gastello, 16, wire. (8 017) 203 56 98, 235 14 01;

Minsk Regional Psychoneurological Dispensary: st. Ponomarenko,5,

wire. (8 017) 251 41 70, 207 68 18;

Brest Regional Narcological Dispensary: st. 17 September, 20, wire. (8 0162) 26 52 51;

Vitebsk Regional Psychoneurological Dispensary: st. Gagarin, 10AND,

wire. (8 0212) 24 98 91, 24 66 90, 24 63 10;

Gomel Regional Narcological Dispensary: st. D. Poor, 26,

wire. (8 0232)55 92 51, 55 96 32;

Grodno Regional Narcological Dispensary: Ave. Kosmonavtov, 60/6,

wire. (8 0152) 75 67 48, 75 67 60;

Mogilev Regional Narcological Dispensary: st. Surganova, 41, wire. (8 0222) 27 92 83.

Republican Center of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Public Health

HIV / AIDS Prevention Department (220048 g. Minsk, st. TO. Cetkin, 4 (3-th floor)

Procedural phone (anonymous) HIV testing room, сифилис, hepatitis B and C (HIV testing at will - anonymously):

(8 017) 321 22 68.

AIDS Prevention Departments of the Regional CGiE and Public Health:

g. Brest, wire. (8 0162) 23 67 00;

g. Gomel, wire. (8 0232) 74 71 40;

g. Mogilev, wire. (8 0222) 24 27 07;

g. Grodno, wire. (8 0152) 75 57 48, 75 54 14;

g. Vitebsk, wire. 21 00 21.

Minsk City Dermatovenerologic Dispensary:

st. Прилукская, 46-and, wire. (8 017) 270 91 14, 270 91 01;

Minsk Regional Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary:

st. P. Eyebrows, 7, wire. (8 017) 233 97 04, 232 31 02;

Brest Regional Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary:

st. Medical, 5, d. Stockings of the Brest region, wire. (8 0162) 97 70 22;

Vitebsk Regional Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary:

st. B. Khmelnitsky, 9, wire. (8 0212) 27 10 73, 37 38 62;

Gomel Regional Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary:

st. Medical, 10, wire. (8 0232) 45 88 97, 45 95 57;

Grodno Regional Skin and Venereal Disease Dispensary:

st. Dombrovsky, 39AND, wire. (8 0152) 39 02 94, 78 23 84;

Mogilev Regional Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary:

inl. Pine, 4, wire. (8 0222) 42 89 61, 42 14 16.