On the recommendation of the World Health Organization annually 10 September is considered World Suicide Prevention Day. This day is intended to attract the attention of both government officials, medical professionals, organizations and institutions of various departmental affiliation, public and religious organizations, and individual citizens to the problem of suicidal behavior.
The global goal of World Suicide Prevention Day is to reduce the suicidal activity of the population (decrease in suicide rate).
Suicide prevention is an integral part of the state's demographic security policy.
AT 2020 the event is celebrated for the 18th time.
Suicides are an urgent medical and social problem in most countries of the world, they make up 50% all violent deaths in men and 71% among women. Suicide is especially common in age 45 years and older, they are the second leading cause of death among young people aged 15-29 globally. The elderly and adolescents are at increased risk.. According to WHO, suicide is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide. AT 2012 g. 804 thousand. people all over the world committed suicide, which gave an annual death rate from suicide of about 11,4/100000 person. However, since suicide is a rather delicate problem, very likely, that these figures are underestimated. There is reason to believe, that the reported suicide rate is underreported by 20%, and in some regions of the world – on 100% as a result of prevailing social or religious attitudes towards suicide.
Suicide is a very significant economic problem. World economic losses from suicide in 1998 made up 1,8% the global burden of disease and could amount to 2,4% to 2020 city, if the number of people, deaths from suicide will reach 1530000 in year.
AT 25 countries of the European Union for suicide among persons before 75 years had 30% YLL due to external reasons; the main "contribution" of deaths occurs due to suicide in 20-55 years at the peak of social life.
People began to commit suicide in primitive times., which is confirmed by anthropological research. At the same time, suicide was initially prohibited among some peoples.. In some communities, suicide was not a crime, in others, suicide attempts were punished, and in the third, suicides were committed as part of the implementation of religious rites and cults. So, in the tribes of some African countries (Uganda, Kenya) person, suicidal, deserves punishment (if suicide is committed by hanging from a tree, his house is given a cleansing fire, and the relatives of the deceased are prohibited from approaching the corpse).
In ancient Greece, few could voluntarily commit suicide, and those sentenced to death were allowed to choose the method of suicide. So, philosopher Socrates was not executed by the executioner, and took poison myself. Suicide, unauthorized, punished with posthumous disgrace (eg, in Athens and Thebes, a suicide's hand was cut off and buried separately).
In the Middle Ages, suicides were treated extremely negatively: they were equated with criminals (England), bodies burned (Denmark), property was confiscated (France). In a later era, suicides were not considered criminals, and persons with a mental disorder.
Subsequently, many countries began to abolish the legal liability of suicides. (France was the first to do this at the end of the 18th century). At the same time, in the UK, suicide was considered a crime before 1961 of the year, in Ireland - before 1993 of the year, and in India -
to 2014 of the year. Some countries still criminalize suicide. for example, in Singapore, a person for attempted suicide is punishable by up to one year in prison and / or fine.
In Russia, suicide was considered a crime according to the article of the military 1715 of the year, where it was fixed, that “if someone kills himself, then the executioner should drag his body to a dishonest place and bury it… If Saldat wanted to kill himself, and in that he was prevented, I could not do that, but it will do it out of torment and annoyance, not to live anymore, or unconscious and shame, which, in the opinion of the teachers, is right with dishonor from the regiment. And if, in addition to the above-mentioned parables, he did this, he should be executed by death ".
Every year the problem of suicide is becoming more and more global., and suicidal attempts are increasingly becoming a form of behavior, which a person resorts to in a crisis situation.
This problem became especially urgent at the turn of the XX-XI centuries..
According to the report of WHO experts, a year on the planet is fixed about 1 million. suicides, what is 16 cases on 100.000 population or 1 case every 40 seconds.
For the last 45 years of the twentieth century, the average world suicide rate increased by 60%.
Of 10 the world's leading countries in terms of this indicator 9 located in Europe.
In the Republic of Belarus:
– more 1,5 thousand. people die by suicide per year;
– at 2019 g. versus 2018 g. by reducing the absolute number of suicides by 10,8%, proportion of suicides:
in the total number of deaths from all causes decreased from 1,5% to 1,3%;
in the total number of deaths from external causes decreased from 22,6% to 21,4%.
– at 2019 g. versus 2018 g. indicators of suicidal activity of the population decreased in 4 out of 5 populations:
in the general population (–10,8%),
in the working-age population (–7,5%),
in the population over working age (–19,0%),
in the child population (–14,3%).
In the population under the working age, indicators of suicidal activity of the population remained at the level 2018 of the year.
– population differences (2019):
in the population of working age committed 72,0% of the total number of suicides;
in the population over working age committed 27,0% of the total number of suicides;
in the child population is perfect 1,5% of the total number of suicides.
– the level of suicidal activity in the rural population prevails over the level of suicide in the urban population.
– suicide, along with cardiovascular, cancer and injury are the most common causes of death, especially citizens of working age.
Suicide is a phenomenon, only found in humans, is a social phenomenon and, to a certain extent, depends on the structure and well-being of a particular society, Moreover, it is an individual personality reaction to a conflict (crisis) the situation, which is determined by the personality characteristics of a particular individual and is found in any society, regardless of its political and socio-economic structure.
Suicide – this is a deliberate taking of one's life. Suicide attempt (parasuicide) – this is intentional self-harm, non-lethal. Parasuicide can be one of the options for blackmailing behavior to attract or regain lost attention, sympathy of loved ones and others, as well as getting rid of punishment.
By definition, suicide means the act of suicide, committed by a person in a state of severe mental disorder or under the influence of mental illness or as a deliberate act of elimination from life under the influence of acute traumatic situations, in which one's own life as the highest value loses meaning for a given person.
According to the World Health Organization, in the world annually as a result of suicide about one million people die, Moreover, takes place about 7 million suicide attempts.
It should be noted, that statistics do not reflect all suicide cases. So, some of the dead are not found, some cases of suicide are mistakenly regarded as death by accident, eg, when drowning, some of the suicides were actually murders in disguise, in some cases, relatives of victims of suicide, for ethical reasons, try to hide the true cause of death.
Suicide prevention is challenging, but a feasible complex non-medical task, to achieve which in the Republic of Belarus the efforts of many organizations are united.
Suicidal behavior – this phenomenon, having a philosophical, psychological, medical, psychiatric, religious and other components. It includes a completed suicide, suicidal attempts (assassination attempts) and intentions (ideas). Attempted suicide, when the person survived (so-called parasuicide), may be the result of an accidental failure or, that the suicide had no real desire to die. At the same time, practice shows, that many of those who committed suicide had previously attempted suicide, therefore parasuicides should be taken very seriously. The killing of themselves by children under the age of 5 years old, as well as persons, unaware of the meaning of their actions or their consequences, not recognized as suicide.
There is no single reason for suicidal behavior. In different countries, rates of suicidal activity fluctuate significantly depending on the region, climatic and socio-economic living conditions, the political environment, national and cultural characteristics and traditions, religious attitudes.
For many years, the Republic of Belarus has been carrying out planned versatile and multi-level work to prevent suicidal activity of the population, uniting the efforts of the state and society.
So, prevention of suicidal behavior is one of the evaluation criteria in the implementation of the State Program "People's Health and Demographic Security of the Republic of Belarus"
on 2016-2020 the years, approved by the resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from 14 Martha 2016 g. № 200.
The state pays great attention to the preservation and strengthening of the mental health of citizens. Providing psychiatric, narcological, psychotherapeutic and psychological assistance in the Republic of Belarus is carried out by a network of health care organizations at various levels of medical care (district, urban, regional, republican) in outpatient, stationary conditions, as well as in the conditions of day care departments.
Information about obtaining such assistance is freely available on the Internet., in mass media, at the information stands of healthcare organizations.
The public has a false belief that, that going to a psychiatrist, psychotherapist, psychologist is something shameful and entails social consequences, which is a serious obstacle to the widespread early appeal of the population for the necessary assistance.
During the onset of mental, psychological problems, you need to think about health, quality of life, rather than follow false beliefs and deprive yourself of timely help.
The existing system of providing psychiatric care provides for the establishment of dispensary observation only of patients, suffering from severe, chronic mental disorders.
Applying for a psychiatric, psychotherapeutic and psychological assistance does not entail any social consequences.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW!
Signs of emotional disturbances:
loss of appetite or binge eating, insomnia or increased sleepiness;
frequent complaints of somatic ailments (for stomach pain, headache, constant fatigue, frequent sleepiness);
unusually dismissive of your appearance;
constant feeling of loneliness, uselessness, guilt or sadness;
feeling bored while spending time in familiar surroundings or doing work, that used to be fun;
avoiding contact, isolation from friends and family, turning alone;
impaired attention with a decrease in the quality of work performed;
immersion in thinking about death;
no plans for the future;
sudden fits of anger, often due to little things;
pessimistic assessment of one's past, selective recall of unpleasant events, pessimistic assessment of one's current state, lack of future prospects.
External manifestations of suicidal behavior may include:
sad expression (mournful mimicry), hypomimia, Amymia;
low monotonous voice, slow speech;
brevity of answers, no response;
accelerated expressive speech;
general motor retardation, inactivity, adynamia, motor excitation;
desire to connect with others, looking for sympathy, appeal to a doctor for help;
egocentric focus on one's suffering.
pain in body parts (head, lives);
sensation of a lump in the throat;
high blood pressure;
sleep rhythm disorder;
dry mouth (dry tongue symptoms);
decline (promotion) body weight;
loss of appetite;
no sense of sleep;
feeling of physical heaviness, mental pain in the chest;
feeling of shortness of breath, shortness of breath.
When to Seek Professional Help:
Do you feel hostile towards people?, who used to be treated well;
you have no interest in anything;
Your health is seriously undermined;
You become addicted to drugs or alcohol;
You avoid society and spend most of your time alone;
Are you thinking about suicide
signs, indicating a suicidal threat:
any sudden changes in behavior and mood, distant from loved ones;
propensity for unreasonably risky behavior;
excessive use of alcohol or pills;
unnecessarily doctor visits;
violation of discipline or a decrease in the quality of work or study;
parting with expensive things or money;
purchase of funds for suicide;
summarizing, putting things in order, preparation for care;
neglect of appearance, neatness at home.
assurances of helplessness and dependence on others4
talking or joking about wanting to die;
reporting a specific suicide plan;
dual assessment of significant events;
slow, inexpressive speech.
The wish to die is common among children and the elderly, and suicidal fantasies are quite natural for ordinary adults. These desires can be expressed in different ways.: "If I were to die now, my parents would be sorry, that treated me so badly", "It's better to die, than to continue to live and suffer like this ”, "I'm tired of life", "You'll be better off without me, because. I am a burden to you", etc.
It is these statements that are used in pre-suicidal conversations or notes.. Threats can turn into actions. Instead of passive acceptance of insurmountable difficulties, there is an active declaration of independence: death by one's own hands. The victim is screaming: "At least, I managed to do at least that".
The risk of suicidal behavior increases with:
previous (unfinished) suicide attempts;
self-harming tendencies (auto-aggression);
presence of suicidal attempts in the family;
alcoholism - long-term alcohol abuse increases depression, feelings of guilt and mental pain, which often precede suicide;
chronic use of drugs and toxic drugs. They weaken motivational control over human behavior, exacerbate depression, cause psychoses;
affective disorders, especially severe depression;
chronic or fatal illnesses;
bereavement, eg, death of a parent, especially during the first year after the loss;
personal and family conflicts (divorce, disease, loneliness, failed love, insults from others, sexual failure);
conflicts, associated with antisocial behavior, including the fear of criminal liability; fear of other punishment or shame;
conflicts, related to work or study (failures).
Requirements for conducting a conversation with a person, contemplating suicide.
To begin with, it is necessary not only to accept a suicidal person as a person, capable of suicide, but also to recognize a person's formal right to take such a step. And during the dialogue itself, it is recommended:
listen carefully to the interlocutor;
formulate questions correctly, calmly and intelligibly asking about the essence of the disturbing situation and about, what help is needed;
do not express surprise at what you hear and do not condemn for any, the most shocking statements;
do not argue or argue, that his misfortune is insignificant, that lives better than others, because statements like “everyone has the same problems” will make a person feel even more unnecessary and useless;
in children and adolescents, try to change the romantic-tragic halo of ideas about their own death;
not offer unjustified consolations, but emphasize the temporary nature of the problem;
provide constructive solutions to problems;
at the same time strive to inspire hope in a person, which, however, should be realistic and aimed at strengthening its forces and capabilities.
Our life is unpredictable: Everything is good today, and tomorrow something unexpected might happen, capable of turning our entire existence upside down.
To do this, the country has created an emergency psychological assistance service by phone., or, to put it simply, "Helplines".
Service specialists will listen to the problem and give recommendations on how to proceed, make an appointment or advise, where to go next.
List of psychological emergency telephone numbers
"Helpline" in the regions of the Republic of Belarus
- Brest region
Brest 170 (around the clock and free of charge for residents of Brest and Brest region)
Pinsk 80165 311038 (around the clock)
Baranovichi 80163 412831 (with 10.00 to 17.00)
- Vitebsk region
Novopolotsk 80214 371375 (8.00 – 17.00)
Pollock 80214 432220 (8.00 – 20.00)
Orsha 80216 210019 (8.00 – 20.00)
Vitebsk 80212 61-60-60 (around the clock)
- Gomel region
Gomel 80232 359191 (around the clock)
- The Grodno region
Grodno 170 (around the clock and free of charge for residents of the city. Grodno and Grodno region)
- Minsk Region
Borisov 0177 734463 (15.00-17.00)
Veleyka 0171 51498 (8.00-16.00)
Molodechno 01713 54644 (20.00-8.00)
Molodechno 01713 47191 (20.00-8.00)
Slutsk 0175 53110 (9.00-17.00)
Soligorsk 0170 30298 (13.30-15.30)
Zhodino 01775 34846 (mon., wed., fri. 16.00-20.00; vt., kht. 8.00-12.00)
- Mogilev region
g. Mogilev 80222 47 31 61 (around the clock)
- R. Minsk
for adults 8-017-352-44-44; 8-017-304-43-70; 375-291-36-35-38 (around the clock)
for children and teenagers 8-017-263-03-03 (around the clock)
Republican children's telephone line: 8-801-100-16-11
For citizens, caught in a crisis
specialized medical care
(psychological, psychotherapeutic, psychiatric)
appears in healthcare organizations:
– for adults: in ME "City Clinical Psychiatric Dispensary" at the address:
g. Minsk, st. ankylosing spondylitis, 5 (psychiatrist) schedule:
Monday Friday 08.00 – 20.00; Saturday 09.00 – 15.00;
reception phone: 8-017-399-24-07.
g. Minsk, st. Mendeleev, 4 (psychotherapist, psychologist)
schedule: Monday Friday 08.00 – 20.00
– for the child population: in ME "City Clinical Children's Psychiatric Dispensary" at the address: g. Minsk str. Ya. Luchiny,6
Monday Friday 08.00 – 20.00, Saturday 09.00 – 15.00
reception phone 8017-320-88-72
(based on materials from the websites of the State Institution "Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Mental Health", ME "11th City Clinical Hospital", ME "5th City Clinical Hospital", Health Committee of the Minsk City Executive Committee; analytical materials of the information system "Consultant plus" – "Combating suicidal behavior among young people", M.V. Kosovych, NI Limoges)